Pacific University Press – From Spectacle-Making Trade to Scholarly Profession

From Spectacle-Making Trade to Scholarly Profession

A History of Optometry in the United States

David A. Goss, OD, PhD

Paperback, 366 pages, 6" x 9"

ISBN 978-1-945398-06-3 (pbk)
ISBN 978-1-945398-11-7 (PDF)

Purchasing Information

A paperback edition is available from online retailers; bookstores may order via Ingram. A PDF edition may be downloaded for free through the link below.

$27.95 (USD) paperback
Free (Open Access) PDF

From Spectacle-Making Trade to Scholarly Profession takes a look at the long span of optometry history, with a primary focus on the United States: examining its path from spectacle making to its current status as a profession with strong academic standing integrated into today's health care system. Along with an overview of the history of optometry from the invention of spectacles to recent years, the book considers the maturation of the optometric examination from simple trial and error of spectacles to today's comprehensive eye and vision examination; the history of optometric education from the brief instructional programs offered in the late nineteenth century to the challenging academic programs of the present; and the increasing sophistication of optometric publications. Optometrists and other readers will gain an appreciation for the struggles, advancements, and contributions of optometry.

Copyright © 2022 by David A. Goss

This book is distributed under the terms of a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives License, which permits non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium in unadapted form only, provided the original author and publisher are credited.

  • Preface
  • Acknowledgments
  • PART I: A Brief Survey of Optometry History
  • Chapter 1: The First Six Centuries of Optometry
  • Chapter 2: Development of Professionalism in Optometry and Related
    Early Twentieth-Century Developments
  • Chapter 3: Continuing Twentieth-Century Challenges and Changes
  • Chapter 4: The Profession Advances and Gains in Recognition
  • PART II: Some Elements of the Development of Optometry as a
    Scholarly Profession
  • Chapter 5: Maturation of the Optometric Examination
  • Chapter 6: Optometric Education
  • Chapter 7: Optometry Publications
  • Appendices
  • Appendix 1: A Historical List of Optometry Schools in the United States
  • Appendix 2: The Changing Optometry Student Body: Data on Optometry
    Students and Graduates
  • Appendix 3: A History of Selected Optometric Periodicals
  • Appendix 4: Notes on the History of Optometry Books
  • About the Author
  • Index